I have lost my Android device. Is it possible for me to recover the data in the phone using my Google account?
If you had your phone settings set so they back up your stuff. For examples, settings, Google Photos,etc. Then it's highly likely that it would. Plus something Google have been doing for a while is noting the apps you have installed and give you the option to redownload them when you do a fresh install onto a new device, or a fresh install.
Yes, you can recover your data. It just depends on what you want.