I'm starting a wiki to compile a short list of browsers, apps, extensions, etc. that allow users to easily link or bookmark webpages between their PC and phone. This is ultimately just a "best apps" question, so answers should be made CW. I placed an answer below. Any other suggestions are appreciated!
If you're running Android 4.0+, just use Google Chrome both on PC and Android, and associate it with the same Google account. This allows you to sync your browsers so that you can see open tabs from both locations on all devices. You can even have multiple PCs/OSs synced, just use the same Google account.
"Sign in to Chrome to sync your open tabs, bookmarks, passwords, and omnibox data from your computer to your phone or tablet. Pick up right where you left off."
No-one seems to have said Pushbullet yet; it's trivially easy to share a webpage to Pushbullet from a phone and push it to the Windows/Mac app or Chrome extension, and the Chrome extension only needs 2 clicks to share any link, whether it's the page you're on or a link you can right-click.
I was looking for bookmark sync for my Android phone too and initially considered Delicious but for some reason none of two available mobile clients worked properly (2.3.6).
I ended up registering and using service diigo.com
GTalkSMS (Google Code Project Page) is able to forward links to you PC over XMPP/GTalk. The link can be send either
Note: According to the FAQ I have to disclose that I am involved into GtalkSMS. GTalkSMS is an open source GPL licensed Android app. Everyone can contribute.
If you have Google Keep, nothing beats it. Pretty instant. The above fly-by-night apps (except for some, like Pocket and browser addons) are un-dependable.
If you have a Delicious account here is an Android app which links up to it.
These are all the ones I've used.
One way (desktop to phone only):
MAXS (Modular Android XMPP Suite) is able to exchange the contents of the clipboard over XMPP.
Note: According to the FAQ I have to disclose that I am involved into MAXS. MAXS is an open source GPLv3 licensed Android app. Everyone can contribute.
You can always use social bookmarking and sync with your existing bookmarks. Look into Papaly for easy to use user interface. Just as long as you have the internet on your Android devices, you'll be able to look at all your bookmarks anywhere.