什么是有什么区别:生根,越狱,rom,mod等? -- rooting 领域 和 root-access 领域 和 custom-roms 领域 和 kernel 领域 android 相关 的问题

What is the difference between: Rooting, Jailbreak, ROM, Mod, etc.?


170
vote

问题

中文

之间的差异是什么:

  • 解锁引导加载程序(做出许多的先决条件,虽然不是所有的,但下面的其他事情)
  • 生根
  • 越狱
  • rom
  • Nand和Nandroid
  • 操作系统
  • Mod(例如cyanogenmod)
  • 恢复(Clockworkmod,Amon Ra)
  • 自定义内核(例如Leshak的内核)
  • 固件
  • 驱动程序
  • 在空中(OTA)更新
  • fastboot
  • sim解锁
  • 闪烁
  • SPL(第二个程序装载机)

(任何其他经常混淆的术语我错过了?)

英文原文

What is the difference between:

  • Unlocking the bootloader (prerequisite for doing many, though not all, other things below)
  • Rooting
  • Jailbreaking
  • ROM
  • NAND and Nandroid
  • Operating System
  • Mod (e.g. CyanogenMod)
  • Recovery (ClockworkMod, Amon Ra)
  • Custom Kernel (e.g. LeshaK's kernel)
  • Firmware
  • Driver
  • Over The Air (OTA) update
  • Fastboot
  • SIM unlocking
  • Flashing
  • SPL (Second Program Loader)

(any other often-confused terms that I've missed?)

           
 
 

回答列表

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rooting 越狱基本上是相同的,越狱是iPhone用户的Word for Android用户呼叫rooting。生根是当您获得"根" 访问手机时,为您提供您想要的任何操作(来自Unix root用户,基本上是unix等于Windows管理员帐户)。通常,您可以防止为自己的源于root,因为在您获得root访问权限,并且很难打破手机,并且很难打破它。
更多信息:"到root手机" 是什么意思?和扎根我的手机。怎么办?我从根生根于the?

a nandroid 备份是您手机的备份,它是手机状态的精确图像。因此,您可以做出当前手机的确切副本,然后对其进行重大更改,然后通过闪烁备份回到手机的备份。 闪烁意味着复制或安装....您基本上擦拭设备并还原以前的状态(备份),或者您正在闪烁新ROM(见下文)。 nand 是您的设备的闪存存储,这就是复制文件的为什么称为"闪烁" 。

Android 操作系统是管理Android手机中硬件的软件,如屏幕,数据通信,存储,相机和GPS。它提供了一个公共图层,允许应用程序在一系列不同的设备上使用和访问这些资源而无需了解它在其运行的实际硬件上的任何特殊性。 Android操作系统还包括许多标准应用程序和服务,如联系人,相机,照片库和Web浏览器应用程序,并允许用户根据控制屏幕亮度或连接到WiFi网络这样的事情。

虽然实际定义是不同的,但在Android世界中, rom mod 固件都是用作基本上的意思同样的事情。它们都指的是Android 操作系统的自定义版本,这些版本已被修改为具有特定品牌的手机,具有特定的自定义或更改。这可以做到这一点,使G1这样的旧手机可以获得一个全新版本的Android,例如2.2即使制造商决定不提供它。或者可以在制造商提供的Android版本中提供额外的功能,或解决制造商提供的版本中的问题。更多信息: AOSP ROM和股票rom之间的区别是什么?,是自定义rom的优势?,为什么是有很多不同的android内核和我在哪里可以找到我的Android设备的库存或自定义ROM? < / p>

a 驱动程序是android软件操作系统如何与Android手机中的所有不同硬件通信。当有人为特定的手机模型汇总了一个ROM时,他们需要包括ROM内的所有电话驱动程序(对于蜂窝调制解调器,如蜂窝调制解调器,WiFi访问,特定摄像机类型,特定处理器等)否则将其包含ROM任何要么不起作用该手机,要么只能工作手机的某些部分,例如,可能无法使用正面的相机,或者可能无法连接到WiFi网络。这与将新硬件插入Windows并运行新硬件添加向导时,这与其完全相同,并在您使用它之前查看新驱动程序。驱动程序由 内核 ,核心操作系统。 在空中(OTA)更新是当您的手机接收到其Android操作系统的更新时"通过空中" ,即它从Google中的蜂窝网络自动发送文件 或者从您的手机网络,而无需插入PC。 这与例如iPhone最初更新的方式形成对比,在这种情况下,它需要物理地插入运行iTunes以获得更新的计算机。

bootloader 控制设备靴子的方式。谷歌的用于进入引导加载程序和其他相关任务的PC端工具称为<强> FastBoot ,并以交互方式运行引导加载程序可能被称为"FastBoot模式" 。一个锁定的bootloader 将验证Android系统分区并将其恢复为库存如果不匹配,而<强>解锁引导加载程序不执行相同的检查,这就是为什么解锁引导加载程序需要永久root设备。

术语<强>恢复通常用于表示几件不同的东西。它可能意味着手机操作的<强>模式。例如,在ATRIX 4G MB860 Olympus上启动恢复模式,必须:

  1. 断电电话
  2. 在手机显示屏上同时保持pwr和vol下按钮,显示"fastboot"
  3. 触摸和释放vol下来(七次)直到"Fastboot" 更改为读取,"Android恢复"
  4. 触摸和释放vol向上按钮选择此选项
  5. 最后,当电话显示围绕与绿色Android机器人相邻的感叹号的三角形,然后:
    • 如果使用Android 2.2(Froyo),那么触摸电话显示屏的右下角
    • 如果使用Android 2.3(gingerbread),则同时举起卷和vol下按钮

进入Android 恢复模式。

这是一种操作模式,允许用户对手机进行重大更改。或恢复也可能意味着手机上的恢复分区。或恢复也可能意味着图像文件(filename.img)可以闪烁到 recovery 分区。例如,ATRIX 4G MB860 Olympus船用库存恢复图像闪烁到恢复分区,并在此类库存上启动进入恢复模式手机允许用户使一些进行手机的主要变更:

    现在重新启动系统
  • 应用sdcard:update.zip
  • 擦除数据/恢复出厂重置
  • 擦除缓存分区

是可能的(虽然这通常需要一个解锁的引导加载程序)来替换在Android 恢复模式下执行的代码通过替换股票恢复图像在恢复分区上安装的图像,自定义恢复图像,如 clockworkmod 。在自定义恢复图像中安装和执行代码通常允许用户对手机进行更全面的更改,并且通常允许用户制作 nandroid 备份并恢复这些备份到手机。

引导加载程序还可以在闪烁固件中播放一些部分,但这通常是恢复的一部分。虽然您通常不想与引导加载程序混淆,但高级用户通常会闪烁自定义恢复,如 clockworkmod (尽管锁定的引导程序可能会阻止此)。这允许尚未由制造商(如自定义ROM)签名的Flash固件,因为股票恢复通常会检查签名,并执行完整的NANDROID备份等高级任务。恢复有点像PC上的BIOS启动屏幕,因为手机启动时,通过按下一个特殊的按钮组合来实现。恢复也可以从手机的SD卡中运行更新文件,或者让您通过ADB(Android Debug Bridge)从PC连接到命令行管理设备。
更多信息: rom Manager,Clockworkmod和Nandroid之间的关系是什么?我需要哪一个?

许多销售GSM手机在合同上的移动电话网络限制了手机,以便只能在他们的手机网络上使用,这被称为<强> SIM锁定,网络锁定< / strong>或补贴锁定。这允许提供者确保他们已经补充的电话只能在网络上使用,这将帮助他们收回该金钱。手机读取 imsi 代码的插入式sim卡并检查它与允许的国家/地区对应手机已编程的网络代码。 sim解锁从手机中删除此限制,以便可以插入和使用任何网络的SIM卡。这通常涉及将代码键入删除锁的电话拨号器中。 T. IRE是不同的方式来获取此代码,具体取决于您的设备和网络,一些网络将为您提供联锁码后,一些制造商在其网站上发布这些代码,一些制造商将这些代码嵌入到其设备中 以一种可以通过应用程序提取的方式,有些需要使用特殊的PC软件来重新编程手机。 SIM锁定通常在硬件/只读固件中实现,因此通常无法在没有代码的情况下解锁设备。
更多信息:我可以在不同的运营商上使用我的设备吗?


相关:另一个问题解释了传统计算机系统用户熟悉的Android平台的某些部分是:
处于正常计算机术语,Android系统的不同部分是什么?

 

Rooting and Jailbreaking are essentially the same things, Jailbreaking is the iPhone users' word for what Android users call Rooting. Rooting is when you gain "Root" access to the phone giving you the power to do anything you want to it (it comes from the Unix Root User, essentially the Unix equivalent to the Windows Administrator account). Normally you're prevented from being Root for your own good, as it's very easy to break your phone once you have root access, and quite hard to break it without.
More info: What does xe2x80x9cto root a phonexe2x80x9d mean? and I've rooted my phone. Now what? What do I gain from rooting?

A Nandroid backup is a backup of your phone that is an exact image of the state of your phone. So you could make an exact copy of your current phone, then do major changes to it, and then restore to your previous backup by flashing the backup back to the phone. Flashing means to copy or to install.... you are essentially wiping the device and restoring a previous state (a backup) or you are flashing a new ROM (see below). NAND is your device's flash storage, which is why copying files there is called "flashing".

The Android operating system is the software that manages the hardware in an Android phone such as the screen, data communications, storage, camera and GPS. It provides a common layer that allows applications the use of and access to these resources on a range of different devices without the app having to know anything special about the actual hardware that it is running on. The Android Operating System also includes a number of standard apps and services such as the Contacts, Camera, Photo Gallery and web browser apps and allows the user to do such things as control the screen brightness or connect to wifi networks.

Although the real definitions are different, in the Android world, ROM, Mod, and Firmware are all used as if they mean essentially the same thing. They all refer to a customised version of the Android operating system that has been modified to work on a particular brand of phone with a specific set of customisations or changes. This can be done so that an old phone like the G1 can be given a brand new version of Android, such as 2.2 even if the manufacturer has decided not to provide it. Or could be to provide extra functionality not available in the manufacturer's supplied version of Android, or to fix problems in the manufacturer supplied version. More info: What's the difference between an AOSP ROM and a stock ROM?, What are the advantages of a custom ROM?, Why are there so many different Android kernels and Where can I find stock or custom ROMs for my Android device?

A Driver is what tells the Android software operating system how to talk to all the different hardware that is in an Android phone. When someone is putting together a ROM for a particular phone model they will need to include of all that phone's drivers inside the ROM (for things like the cellular modem, WiFi access, the particular camera type, the specific processor, etc) otherwise the ROM either won't work on that phone, or will only be able to work certain parts of the phone and, for instance, may not be able to use the front-facing camera, or may not be able to connect to a WiFi network. This is exactly the same as when you plug something new into Windows and it runs the New Hardware Added wizard and goes looking for a new driver before you can use it. Drivers are loaded by the kernel, the core of the operating system.

An Over The Air (OTA) update is when your phone receives an update to its Android operating system "over the air", ie it is sent the files automatically over the cellular network from either Google or from your phone network without ever needing to be plugged into a PC. This contrasts with the way that, for example, the iPhone was originally updated where it needed to be physically plugged into a computer running iTunes to get its updates.

The bootloader controls how the device boots. Google's PC-side tool for getting into the bootloader and other related tasks is called Fastboot, and running the bootloader interactively may be called "Fastboot mode". A locked bootloader will verify the Android system partition and restore it to stock if it doesn't match, whereas an unlocked bootloader doesn't do the same checking, which is why unlocking the bootloader is required to permanently root a device.

The term recovery is often used to mean several different things. It could mean a mode of operation for the phone. For example, to boot into recovery mode on Atrix 4G MB860 olympus, one must:

  1. power-off the phone
  2. hold PWR and VOL DOWN buttons simultaneously until phone display shows "Fastboot"
  3. touch and release VOL DOWN repeatedly (seven times) until "Fastboot" changes to read, "Android Recovery"
  4. touch and release VOL UP button to choose this option
  5. Finally, when the phone displays a triangle surrounding an exclamation point adjacent to a green android robot, then either:
    • if using Android 2.2 (Froyo), then touch lower-right corner of phone display
    • if using Android 2.3 (Gingerbread), then hold both VOL UP and VOL DOWN buttons simultaneously

to enter Android Recovery mode.

This is a mode of operation that allows the user to make major changes to the phone. Or recovery could also mean the recovery partition on the phone. Or recovery could also mean the image file (filename.img) that can be flashed to the recovery partition. For example, the Atrix 4G MB860 olympus ships with a stock recovery image flashed to the recovery partition, and booting into recovery mode on such a stock phone allows the user to make some major changes to the phone:

  • reboot system now
  • apply sdcard:update.zip
  • wipe data/factory reset
  • wipe cache partition

It is possible (though this usually requires an unlocked bootloader) to replace the code that executes in Android Recovery mode by replacing the stock recovery image that the manufacturer installed on the recovery partition with a custom recovery image like ClockworkMod. Installing and executing the code in a custom recovery image often allows the user to make many more comprehensive changes to the phone and also often allows the user to make Nandroid backups and restore these backups to the phone.

The bootloader may also play some part in flashing firmware, though this is usually part of recovery. While you normally don't want to mess with the bootloader, advanced users will often flash a custom recovery like ClockworkMod (though a locked bootloader may prevent this). This allows one to flash firmware that hasn't been signed by the manufacturer (such as custom ROMs), since stock recovery usually checks for the signature, and do advanced tasks like complete Nandroid backups. Recovery is a bit like the BIOS boot screen on PCs in that you get to it by pressing a special combination of buttons as the phone starts up. Recovery can also do things like run an update file from the phone's SD card, or let you connect from a PC via ADB (Android Debug Bridge) to manage the device from the command line.
More info: What is the relation between ROM Manager, ClockworkMod and Nandroid? Which one(s) do I need?

Many mobile phone networks that sell GSM phones on a contract restrict the phone so that it can only be used on their phone network, this is known as a SIM lock, network lock or subsidy lock. This allows a provider to ensure that a phone that they've subsidised can only be used on a network that will help them them recoup that money. The phone reads the IMSI code of the inserted SIM card and checks that it corresponds with the allowed country or network codes that the phone has been programmed with. SIM unlocking removes this restriction from a phone so that any network's SIM card can be inserted and used. This generally involves typing a code into the phone's dialler that removes the lock. There are different ways to get this code depending on your device and network, some networks will give you the unlock code once you reach the end of your contract's term, some manufacturers publish these codes on their websites, some manufacturers embed these codes into their devices in a way that can be extracted by an app and some require use of special PC software to reprogram the phone. The SIM lock is usually implemented in hardware/read-only firmware, so it's generally not possible to unlock your device without a code.
More info: Can I use my device on a different carrier?


Related: Another question that explains some parts of the Android platform in terms familiar to users of traditional computer systems is:
In normal computer terms, what are the different parts of an Android system?

 
 
   
   
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tl; dr版本:

解锁引导加载程序

  • 启动时的初始程序是引导程序。如果"锁定" 它可能:1)块在闪烁的尝试2)如果未经授权的内容闪烁,则拒绝启动手机。解锁它意味着更改影响此行为的设置。

生根

  • 请参阅 rooting手机是什么意思

越狱

  • rooting iPhone Word。越狱和生根是类似但与抽象过程的角度相同。越狱意味着绕过引导加载程序(或忽略Apple的安全性),然后获取管理员权限,而生根纯粹是获取权限 - 没有否则暗示。此外,越狱的特权(自由!)可以说是更大的越狱,因为Android已经允许使用Sideload

rom

  • ROM是您可以闪烁到NAND的任何数据的伞术语。在大多数Android上下文中闪烁ROM =安装移动操作系统。在其他情况下,它可能只是替换某些文件来定制皮肤。等等。
    虽然ROM可能是一个错误的错误(实际上是指非易失性的内存 - 而不是数据),但大多数人都不知道内核,操作系统,引导加载程序等之间的区别。这么多修改只是称为ROM,这避免困惑和捕体(就像人们称之为Linux OS而不是说GNU / Linux是一个OS甚至GNU / Linux / X)。
    另请参见为什么不能泛型电话操作系统?

nand

  • 一种固态存储类型,另一个例子也是内存。

mmc / sd

  • MMC是SD的竞争对手。两者都是使用NAND内存的存储卡标准。除了物理形式外,这些标准将判断用于访问NAND的接口/协议。这意味着这些内存格式具有不同或额外的存储器控​​制器。
    虽然MMC格式较旧,但许多设备使用EMMC而不是ESD。 "e" 代表嵌入式,只意味着存储在典型意义上是不可移除的。
    与MMC相比,SD有更多的销钉,较厚并支持DRM。它也稍高。他们都使用SPI协议来访问NAND。

nandroid

  • 用于备份的系统映像。通常不包括引导加载程序。

操作系统

  • Android,Windows,其他Linux Distrs,Mac OS X,iOS都是所有操作系统。在更多的技术中,内核可以称为操作系统。它是一个程序,为其他程序提供安全性并使用它的 all 。

mod(例如cyanogenmod)

  • 第三方文件可能会闪烁到手机以提供额外/其他功能。可能是一个完整的操作系统,如cm。

恢复(Clockworkmod,Amon Ra)

  • 手机可以启动到主操作系统或恢复。这就像一个迷你操作系统,允许用户执行维护操作,例如删除,备份或安装文件.Ooften驻留在/恢复分区中。

自定义内核(例如Leshak的内核)

  • 操作系统的一部分,用于控制硬件和运行的所有其他程序。它是加载的第一个非引导程序代码。经常驻留在/引导分区中。

固件

    嵌入式设备上的软件。

驱动程序

  • 内核使用的程序与硬件通信。通常由硬件制造商编写。大多数设备的Android源树没有内核和驱动程序。这就是为什么非Google设备更难保持最新的时间。

在空中(OTA)更新

  • 更新您只能使用手机下载并安装(即,无需电缆/ USB)。

fastboot

  • PC程序来自Google生产的ADK。 允许引导加载程序将数据闪现给NAND。

sim解锁

  • 某些移动提供商可以作为合同的一部分提供设备。 这些设备对您可以使用的SIM卡具有软件限制 - 以防止更改提供程序。

闪烁

  • 将/写入NAND内存。 所以即使将文件移动到SDCard也可以称为闪烁。

spl(第二个程序装载机)

  • 由bootloader调用

 

TL;DR version:

Unlocking the bootloader

  • The initial program when you boot is the bootloader. If "locked" it may: 1) block attempts at flashing 2) refuse to boot the phone if something unauthorized was flashed. Unlocking it means changing a setting that affects this behaviour.

Rooting

  • see what does rooting a phone mean

Jailbreaking

  • iphone word for rooting. Jailbreak and rooting are similar but not identical from the perspective of the abstract process. Jailbreaking implies getting around a bootloader (or ignoring Apple's security) and then getting admin privileges, whereas rooting is purely getting the privileges--nothing else is implied. Also the gain in privileges (freedom!) is arguably greater with jailbreaking, as sideloading is already allowed with android

ROM

  • ROM is an umbrella term for any data you can flash to NAND. In most android contexts flashing ROM = installing mobile operating system. In other contexts it may just mean replacing some files to customize your skin. Etc.
    While ROM may be a bit of a misnomer (actually refers to non-volatile memory--not data), most people don't know the difference between a kernel, OS, bootloader and etc. So many modifications just get called ROMs, this avoids confusion and flamewars (like when people call linux an OS instead of saying GNU/linux is an OS or even GNU/linux/X).
    See also Why can't they make a generic phone OS?

NAND

  • A type of solid state storage, another example is NOR memory.

MMC/SD

  • MMC is/was the the competitor of SD. Both are memory card standards that use NAND memory. Apart from physical form these standards decribe the interface/protocol used to access NAND. This means these memory formats come with a different or additional memory controller.
    While the MMC format is older, many devices use eMMC instead of eSD. The "e" stands for embedded and just means the storage is non-removable in the typical sense.
    Compared to MMC, SD has more pins, is thicker and supports DRM. It is also slightly more expensive. They both use the SPI protocol to access the NAND.

Nandroid

  • A system image used for backups. Often does not include the bootloader.

Operating System

  • Android, Windows, other linux distros, Mac OS X, iOS are all operating systems. In a more technincal sense the kernel can be called the operating system. It is a program that provides an environment for other programs to run safely and use its HAL.

Mod (e.g. CyanogenMod)

  • 3rd party files that may be flashed to the phone to provide extra/other features. Could be a complete operating system like CM.

Recovery (ClockworkMod, Amon Ra)

  • Phones can boot into the main OS or Recovery. This is like a mini OS that allows users to perform maintenance actions such as deleting, backing up or installing files.Often resides in the /recovery partition.

Custom Kernel (e.g. LeshaK's kernel)

  • Part of the operating system that controls the hardware and all the other programs that run. It is the first non-bootloader code loaded. Often resides in the the /boot partition.

Firmware

  • Software on embedded devices.

Driver

  • program used by the kernel to communicate with hardware. Typically written by the manufacturers of the hardware. The android source tree comes without kernel and drivers for most devices. THis is why non-google devices have a harder time keeping up-to-date.

Over The Air (OTA) update

  • Update you can download and install with your phone only (i.e. no cables/USB needed).

Fastboot

  • PC Program from the ADK produced by google. Allows bootloaders to flash data to the NAND.

SIM unlocking

  • Certain mobile providers may offer devices as part of a contract. These devices have software restrictions on what SIM cards you can use--to prevent changing provider.

Flashing

  • Copying/writing to NAND memory. So even moving a file to your sdcard can be called flashing.

SPL (Second Program Loader)

  • A bootloader called by a bootloader
 
 
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生根和越狱是指同样的事情。越狱的术语来自Apple的iPhone社区,Android中的首选术语是生根的。

rooting /越狱是指在手机上启用管理员/超级用户/ root / root / oder-0用户。在UnoRoted设备中,Superuser帐户被禁用以供安全目的。超级用户拥有完全特权,包括删除或修改关键系统文件。

更多关于rooting:什么是"到root手机" 的意思?

 

Rooting and Jailbreaking refers to the same thing. The term Jailbreaking comes from Apple's iPhone community, the preferred term in Android is rooting.

Rooting/Jailbreaking refers to enabling the administrator/superuser/root/user-id-0 user on the phone. In unrooted device, the superuser account is disabled for security purpose. The superuser possess full privilege over the system, including deleting or modifying critical system files.

More about rooting: What does "to root a phone" mean?

 
 
 
 
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固件是指整个Android软件堆栈:内核(包括驱动程序),Dalvik VM和操作系统。但是,它不包括从市场安​​装的应用程序。

固件可以是官方(由制造商和/或服务提供商发布),或者它可以是非官方的(由Modding社区发布)。

 

Firmware refers to the whole Android Software Stack: Kernel (incl. drivers), Dalvik VM, and the Operating System. However, it does not include applications installed from Market.

Firmware can be official (released by the manufacturer and/or service provider) or it can be unofficial (released by modding community).

 
 
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cyanogenmod对rom (以及许多其他术语该列表)

只读内存。在一个背景下 Android设备,ROM是内部的 核心运行的闪存 系统驻留。它也可以参考a 可以是特定的版本固件 通过过程应用于设备 通常称为闪烁。一个 闪存不正当的rom通常可以砖 设备,渲染它无法使用。

 

CyanogenMod has a good definition of ROM (and a lot of the other terms on that list)

Read Only Memory. In the context of an Android device, ROM is the internal flash memory where the core operating system resides. It can also refer to a specific version firmware that can be applied to a device through a process usually referred to as flashing. An improperly flashed ROM can often brick the device, rendering it unusable.

 
 
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这个问题已经很好地得到了很好的回答,但我发现大多数非技术人员困惑的一件事是生根/越狱和SIM解锁之间的区别。

这是我对非技术人员使用的简单解释。

智能手机基本上是2件事

  1. 手机

    解锁与智能手机的电话部分相关。

    在某些国家(通常),智能手机的电话部分被承运人锁定,以便与其他运营商一起使用。

  2. 计算机

    rooting /越狱与智能手机的计算机部分相关。

    手机(Android / IOS / Windows)的操作系统被操作系统编写器(Google / Apple / Microsoft)锁定,以便只能访问OS和制造商提供的接口的功能。您的设备上没有管理员权限(与您可以作为管理员身份登录的Windows PC上的管理员权限)。

    这是有很多原因所做的
    1.你必须通过他们的appstore等购买
    2.很多用户都没有足够的技术,因此这是为了保护他们做一些愚蠢的事情。

    绕过这些措施来获取管理员访问自己的设备,称为rooting或越狱。

 

This question is already well answered, but one thing I find most non-tech people getting confused about is the difference between rooting/jailbreaking and SIM Unlocking.

This is the simple explanation I use for non-tech people.

A smartphone is essentially 2 things

  1. A phone

    Unlocking is relevant to the phone part of the smartphone.

    In some countries (USA typically), the phone part of the smartphone is locked by the carrier so that it cannot be used with other carriers.

  2. A computer

    Rooting/Jailbreaking is relevant to the computer part of the smartphone.

    The OS of the phone (Android/IOS/Windows) is locked by the OS writer (Google/Apple/Microsoft) so that you can only access the functionality with the OS and Manufacturer provided interface. You do not have administrator permission on your device (unlike a Windows PC where you can login as an administrator).

    This is done for many reasons
    1. You have to buy through their appstore etc
    2. A lot of users aren't technical enough, hence this is done to protect them from doing something stupid.

    Bypassing these measures to get administrator access to your own device is called rooting or jailbreaking.

 
 
     
     
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android内核是指Linux内核和Linux内核附带的驱动程序集。内核与Android和Java / Dalvik虚拟机一起提供的应用程序。

Costum内核是指对Linux内核的社区修改。内核提供低级服务,资源管理和安全性。

驱动程序是内核的一部分,它直接与硬件通话,它提供了一个标准接口,它隐藏了特定硬件的复杂性。

内核和驱动程序中的修改通常包括特定于硬件的错误修复,优化资源管理和解锁驱动程序级别禁用的硬件功能。

 

Android Kernel refers to the Linux Kernel and the set of drivers that comes with the Linux kernel. The kernel does not include Applications that comes with Android nor the Java/Dalvik Virtual Machine.

Costum Kernel refers to community-made modifications to the Linux Kernel. The Kernel provides low-level services, resource management, and security.

The Driver is a part of the kernel which talks directly with the hardware, it provides a standard interface which hides the intricacies of a particular hardware.

Modifications in the Kernel and Driver typically includes hardware-specific bug fix, optimizing resource management, and unlocking hardware features that was disabled in the driver-level.

 
 
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在空中更新中是指从设备制造商和运营商和运营商的官方更新,该更新被自动推送到您的设备。

ota更新基本上是一个官方固件更新,因为它涵盖了整个Android堆栈(驱动程序,固件,内核,VM,应用程序)。

 

Over The Air update refers to an official update from your device manufacturer and carrier, the update being pushed automatically to your device.

OTA update is basically an official firmware update, as it covers the whole Android stack (drivers, firmware, kernel, VM, applications).

 
 
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我的理解是不同的mod / rom类似于PC世界中的Ubuntu和Fedora(Linux的不同变体)。内核的水平低于此,就像Ubuntu 10.10和Fedora 14一样使用相同的Linux内核2.6.35

 

my understanding is that different mod/rom is similar to likes of ubuntu and fedora (different variant of linux) in PC world. Kernel is lower level than this, like both ubuntu 10.10 and fedora 14 are using the same linux kernel 2.6.35

 
 

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