实验室用户帐户 -- synchronization 领域 和 users 领域 和 home-directory 领域 服务器管理 相关 的问题

Lab User Accounts


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问题

中文

我为学校划分工作(k-12)。虽然我最感兴趣的是,Windows和Linux管理员必须面对同一问题并具有类似的解决方案。

在特定实验室中的大多数计算机是大致相同的机器。因此,我们拥有新台式机,旧台式机的实验室,新笔记本电脑的实验室(带802.11n)和旧笔记本电脑的实验室(802.11g卡)。

我正在寻找用于使用的帐户类型的建议。 Mac(以及其他系统)支持几种类型的帐户,我如下所述。

我的具体问题是:

  • 我在评估不同类型的账户的评估中错过了什么?
  • 您会推荐哪种账户,因为主要是非技术教师所教授的课程的主要非技术学生?
  • 您是否在桌面和笔记本电脑上使用相同类型的帐户?
  • 你有提示是否有缓解一些问题? (前。我们使用本地帐户并允许学生备份到网络?教师强制执行座位图表,以便学生始终使用同一台机器?我们想不出一种更好的方法来教授学生备份文件的更好方法允许他们失去大作业?)
  • 您为使用不同类别的不同计算机的学生提供了哪些建议? (可能是社会研究中的一个很好的新机器和英文笔记本电脑?)

更新:在描述您管理的系统时,您是否可以提及是否有用户或使用笔记本电脑(或无线连接),以及学生使用大文件(例如正在进行音频或视觉编辑?)

帐户类型:

本地帐户

  • 优点:

    • 主文件夹存在于计算机本身上;数据访问不能更快
    • 不受网络问题的影响
  • 缺点:

    • 需要访问特定计算机
    • 如果单位发生故障,则数据丢失
    • 需要为计算机的每个用户创建帐户

网络帐户

  • 优点:

    • 数据存储在服务器上,可以正确备份
    • 如果最终用户计算机失败,则数据是安全的
    • 帐户存储在目录系统中;你真的不在乎学生登录
    • 没有时间花费同步
  • 缺点:

    • 文件访问速度取决于网络条件
    • 一些应用程序表现得很差或者真的很慢
    • 真的不应该是无线使用的
    • 后端服务需要可靠地工作:
      • afp / nfs / smb文件共享必须启动和工作
      • 目录服务需要为用户工作登录

移动帐户

这些尝试是两个世界的最佳选择。有两个极端:一个你同步所有数据的地方,一个没有数据的一个。

  • 移动帐户,没有同步

    • 优点:

      • 用户可以在一系列机器中,为它们创建一个主文件夹
      • 数据访问快速;它在硬盘上是正确的
      • 文件服务器不需要支持它
    • 缺点:

      • 初始登录需要工作网络和目录服务
      • 用户需要每次使用相同的计算机,或者它们将无法访问其文件
      • 家庭文件夹随着时间的推移积累,并且没有清除。
  • 移动帐户,完全同步

    • 优点:

      • 用户可以登录一系列机器,并且将文件文件夹从文件共享服务器复制到本地硬盘(并且更改保持同步)。
      • 访问快速;文件位于硬盘驱动器上
      • 文件也活在服务器上。如果客户端计算机失败,则用户可以在不同的计算机上访问其文件。
      • 这是一对一笔记本电脑部署的理想设置。

    • 缺点:

      • 同步冲突真的混淆了非技术用户。他们不知道如何回答它们时,"文件x不同。您想使用网络版本的本地版本吗?"
      • 与大量数据同步的主文件夹真的很慢。这么多使用户始终使用相同的计算机。
      • 家庭文件夹随着时间的推移积累,并且没有清除。
      • Syncing要求正端服务正常运行
      • 用户需要在登录之前和之后花费时间同步(并在背景中同步持续 他们工作)
      • 特别是学生正在进行多媒体工作,您的文件服务器可以很快填满。 [我收集了这种配额在过去没有在这里工作过。]
  • 移动帐户,部分同步

    • 优点:

        不同步某些文件或文件夹(如电影,音乐和照片)时,需要更少的空格(如电影,音乐和照片)
    • 较少的应变被放在网络上
  • 缺点:

    • 某些文件只会在一台机器上存在,并使用该机器终止和死亡。
    • 如果学生希望使用各种机器,您真的需要明确哪些文件不会同步。
    • 完全同步中给出的所有问题,除了"同步真的慢" 问题之外减少了。

更新 - 发生了几个变体,我后来看到他们在Apple的用户管理v10.5 文档,p上p。 142("使用Mac OS X便携式计算机具有多个用户" )。

本地帐户,单一登录

优点:

  • 不必担心忘记密码!
  • 访问快速,不依赖于网络条件
  • 可以在主图像中创建用户帐户

缺点:

  • 这是一个自由的人。您无法期望您在下次登录(或更糟糕的情况下,您可以在那里工作!
  • 如果似乎您的文件大部分时间都存在,那么当您需要时,重要的东西将会丢失

访客帐户

优点:

  • 您每次登录新创建的,清洁帐户

缺点:

  • 所有文件都丢失在注销时
  • 工作必须保存在外部
  • 多媒体使用变得非常困难

英文原文

I work for a school division (K-12). While I am most interested in what works well on the Mac, Windows and Linux administrators must face the same issue and have analogous solutions.

Most of our computer in a given lab are roughly identical machines. Thus we have labs of new desktops, labs of old desktops, labs of new laptops (with 802.11n) and labs of old laptops (with 802.11g cards).

I'm looking for recommendations for the types of accounts to use. The Mac (and presumably other systems) supports several types of accounts, which I've detailed below.

My specific questions are:

  • Have I missed anything in my assessments of the different types of accounts?
  • Which sort of accounts would you recommend, for use by largely non-technical students in classes taught by largely non-technical teachers?
  • Would you use the same type of accounts on desktops and laptops?
  • Do you have tips to mitigate some of the problems? (ex. We use local accounts and allow the students to back up to the network? The teachers enforce a seating chart so that students always use the same machine? We can't think of a better way to teach students to back up files than allow them to lose major assignments?)
  • What advice do you offer for a student who uses different computers in different classes? (Possibly a nice new machine in Social Studies and an old laptop in English?)

Update: When describing systems you manage, can you please mention if any users or using laptops (or wireless connections), and if students are working with large files (such as doing audio or visual editing?)

Account Types:

Local Account

  • Pros:

    • Home folder exists on the computer itself; data access could not be faster
    • Unaffected by network issues
  • Cons:

    • Requires access to a specific computer
    • If the unit fails, data is lost
    • Need to create accounts for each user of the computer

Network Account

  • Pros:

    • Data is stored on a server, where it can be properly backed up
    • If an end-user computer fails, the data is safe
    • Accounts are stored in a directory system; you don't really care where a student logs in
    • No time is spent syncing
  • Cons:

    • File access speed is dependent upon network conditions
    • Some applications behave poorly or are really slow
    • Really should not be used wirelessly
    • Back-end services need to be working reliably:
      • AFP/NFS/SMB file share must be up and working
      • Directory service needs to be working for users to log in

Mobile Accounts

These try to be the best of both worlds. There are two extremes: one where you sync all the data, and one where no data is synced.

  • Mobile Accounts, No Syncing

    • Pros:

      • Users can lot into a range of machines, and a home folder is created for them
      • Data access is fast; it is right on the hard drive
      • File servers aren't needed to support it
    • Cons:

      • Initial log-in requires a working network and directory service
      • The user needs to use the same computer each time, or they will be unable to access their files
      • Home folders accumulate over time and aren't cleared out.
  • Mobile Accounts, Full Syncing

    • Pros:

      • Users can log into a range of machines, and their home folder is copied off of a file sharing server to the local hard drive (and changes are kept in sync).
      • Access is fast; the files are on the hard drive
      • Files also live on the server. If a client computer fails, the user can access their files on a different machine.
      • This is the ideal setup for a one-to-one laptop deployment.
    • Cons:

      • Syncing conflicts really confuse non-technical users. They don't know how to answer when they are told, "File X differs. Do you want to use the local version of the network version?"
      • Syncing a home-folder with lots of data is really slow. So much so that it is best for the user to always use the same computer.
      • Home folders accumulate over time and aren't cleared out.
      • Syncing requires back-end services to be functioning properly
      • Users need to spend time syncing before and after logging in (and syncing continous in the background as they work)
      • Especially is students are doing multimedia work, your file server can fill up really quickly. [I gather that quotas have not worked here well in the past.]
  • Mobile Accounts, Partial Syncing

    • Pros:

      • Less space on the file server is required when you don't sync certain files or folders (like movies, music, and photos)
      • Less strain is put on the network
    • Cons:

      • Certain files will only exist on one machine, and live and die with that machine.
      • If student expect to use various machines, you really need to make it clear which files will not be synced.
      • All problems given in the full syncing, except that the "syncing is really slow" issue is reduced.

Update -- a couple of variations occured to me, and I later saw that they are suggested in Apple's User Management v10.5 document, on p. 142 ("Using Mac OS X Portable Computers with Multiple Users").

Local Accounts, Single Login

Pros:

  • Don't have to worry about forgotten passwords!
  • Access is fast and doesn't depend on network conditions
  • The user account can be created in the master image

Cons:

  • It is a free-for all. You can't expect you work to be there the next time you log in (or worse, it may be modified!)
  • If it seems that your file is there most of the time, then something important will be lost when you need it

Guest Accounts

Pros:

  • You log into a newly created, clean account every time

Cons:

  • All files are lost on log-off
  • Work has to be saved externally
  • Multimedia usage becomes very difficult
        

回答列表

2
 
vote

我们是更高的,环境不太相同。另一方面,我们大约有21,000名学生教育,因此我们是一些较小的K-12学区的规模。这就是我们的适用。

每个学生都有自己的目录服务登录(实际上是三个目录。Active Directory,Novell Edirectory和NIS +)。实验室和课堂工作站差异很大,但是95%的Windows Machines。我们利用Novell登录脚本来创建驱动器映射。每个用户都有一个主目录,许多类都有一个用于共享文件的类目录(至少,那些尚未使用Blackboard的类目录。每个机器模型都安装了一致的软件环境,在我们需要进行更改时,我们的桌面民间需要一些时间。

由于工作站有效一次性,学生要么使用他们的主目录或(如今,更常见)USB拇指驱动器,而不是存储数据的本地工作站。

当我们移动到基于广告的登录脚本时,我们将做同样的事情。在这些工作站可以使用的所有建筑物中,我们有一个快速,可靠的有线网络的优势。登录脚本只需要访问目录服务器,通常运行得非常快(只要所有服务器都映射到即时和谈话即可)。我们发现专门的学生帐户使单一登录更容易放在一起,特别是在开发基于Web的服务,例如学生门户网站。我们甚至设法到了SSO黑板。

 

We're higher-ed, so not quite the same environment. On the other hand, we have on the order of 21,000 students to educate, so we're the size of some smaller K-12 school districts. And this is what works for us.

Each student has their own directory service login (three directories, actually. Active Directory, Novell eDirectory, and NIS+). Lab and classroom workstations vary widely but are 95% Windows machines. We leverage the Novell login-script to create drive mappings. Each user has a home directory, and many classes have a class directory for shared files (at least, those not already using Blackboard). Each model of machine has a consistent software environment installed on it, which takes some time for our desktop folk to cook up when we need to make changes.

Since workstations are effectively disposable, students either use their home directory or (much more often these days) a USB thumb-drive, not the local workstation to store data.

As we move to an AD-based login script, we'll be doing much the same thing. We have the advantage of a fast, reliable wired network in all buildings that these workstations can use. The login scripts only require access to the directory servers and typically run very fast (so long as all the servers being mapped to are up and talking). We've found that dedicated student accounts make single-sign-on a lot easier to put together, especially when developing web-based services such as a student portal. We've even managed to SSO Blackboard.

 
 
2
 
vote

我是所有用户的网络帐户和网络存储的大粉丝。我在高级工作,我们可以相信人们可以记住他们的密码。这可能是年轻用户的更大问题,但可能不是。网络存储受到网络速度的限制,但对于文件的大小以及大多数学生正在努力的文件类型而不是一个巨大的限制因素。如果是,你应该看你的网络有什么问题,并在那里修复基础设施问题。

如果使用带有脚本安装的主目录的集中登录,您的学生数据将一直在一个地方。此外,大多数更高的ED组织为学生数据做的是什么,因此它为他们提供了良好的做法,因为他们超越门的期望。

 

I am a big fan of network accounts and network storage for all users. I work in higher-ed and we can trust that people can remember their passwords. Which may be a bigger issue with younger users but probably not. Network storage is limited by your network speed but for the sizes of files and the types of documents most students are working on that's not a huge limiting factor. If it is you should be looking at what's wrong with your network and working on fixing the infrastructure problem there.

If you use centralized logon with script mounted home directories your students data will all be in one place all the time. Also it's what most higher ed organizations are doing for student data so it gives them good practice for what to expect when they get beyond your doors.

 
 
   
   
2
 
vote

在我们的Mac中心实验室设置(大学),这是什么作品:

用户身份验证。 UNIX密码文件中的Linux服务器,des哈希和全名为我们兼容10.2到10.5。设置基于OSX版本而异。

家庭目录的NFS。 Linux Server,NFSv3 / NFSv4。 10.5对NFS锁定的工作非常敏感,但否则是坚固的。 10.4无法恢复丢失的网络共享...超时意味着硬重启(或远程SSH登录,以及杀死守护程序和软重启的sudo命令。)10.3工作得很好。对于10.5我们使用Automount for Share Management,在旧版本上使用/库/ StartupItem中的shell脚本。

笔记本电脑是一个垃圾拍摄。他们没有做好"实验室" 电脑。 802.1g是NFS / NIS的吸吮,并且具有10.4个网络可靠性(并且没有超时> 2-3秒)是类似于类似于"可靠" 操作的任何东西。 802.1n可能解决了带宽/性能问题,但我不会尝试更少的任何东西10.5。

在我们的情况下,笔记本电脑有一个本地用户(所有者),我们只支持有线网络(及其分配的静态IPS)。用户使用一对shell脚本以根据需要向上和向下带来NFS共享。

编辑:我应该补充一点,这是针对Master / Ph.D的研究实验室。学生们,所以我们的用户数据约为250GB +。然而,用户数量非常低。大约25 Mac和As Manux工作站,也许是十几台服务器,共有12-15TB的磁盘?大约50个每日活跃用户。

 

In our Mac-centric lab setting (university), here's what works:

NIS for user authentication. Linux server, DES hashes and Full Name in the Unix password file gives us compatibility from 10.2 to 10.5. Setup varies based on OSX version.

NFS for home directories. Linux server, NFSv3/NFSv4. 10.5 is very sensitive to NFS lockd working properly but otherwise solid. 10.4 cannot recover lost network shares... A timeout means a hard reboot (or remote SSH login, and a sudo command to kill a daemon and a soft reboot.) 10.3 works pretty well. For 10.5 we use automount for share management, a shell script in /Library/StartupItems on older versions.

Laptops are a crap shoot. They don't make good "lab" computers. 802.1g is sucky for NFS/NIS and with 10.4 network reliability (and no timeouts > 2-3 seconds) is a must for anything resembling "reliable" operation. 802.1n probably solves the bandwidth/performance concerns but I wouldn't try with anything less then 10.5.

In our cases, laptops have a single local user (the owner) and we only support NFS over wired network (and their assigned static IPs). Users use a pair of shell script to bring the NFS shares up and down as needed.

EDIT: I should add that this is for research labs with Master/Ph.D. students and so our data per user is on the order of 250GB+. The user count however is quite low. About 25 macs and as many Linux workstations and maybe a dozen servers and a total of 12-15TB of disks? About 50 daily active users.

 
 
1
 
vote

我会推荐Mac服务器并使用Apple目录服务来管理用户:

http://training.apple.com/itpro/leopard301

它是一个LDAP后端,并以某种方式与Active Directory类似。由于您是Mac House,可能是您最好的选择,虽然您/可以/验证来自Active Directory(以及基于LDAP的模型)的验证Mac,如果您真的很愿意。

 

I would recommend a Mac server and using the Apple Directory Service to manage the users:

http://training.apple.com/itpro/leopard301

It's an LDAP backend and similar to Active Directory in some ways. Since you're a Mac house, it is probably your best bet, although you /can/ authenticate Macs against Active Directory (and other LDAP based models) if you really want to.

 
 
       
       
0
 
vote

如果您能使用Linux,您可能对LTSP(Linux终端服务项目)感兴趣

本质上讲,您需要一个相当强大的中央服务器(以及冗余,好像这件事已经消失,您基本上是吐司),以及一个非常托管的网络。一切都将存储在本机上。我必须检查,但我不相信需要任何类型的同步(在飞行中一切都完成)所以需要至少100Mbit,但是如前所述,学生不应该储蓄无论如何大的东西。

此方法的伟大事项是所有偏好和程序都是"移动" ,并且可以轻松地在一台计算机上以及下一个计算机使用。

 

If you're able to use linux, you may be interested in LTSP (Linux Terminal Service Project)

Essentially, you'd need a fairly robust central server (and redundancy, as if this thing is gone, you're basically toast), and a decently managed network. Everything would be stored on this machine. I'd have to check, but I don't believe any kind of syncing is required (everything is done on the fly) so having at LEAST 100mbit is going to be required, however as was previously mentioned, students shouldn't be saving something that large anyways.

The great thing about this method is that all preferences and programs are "mobile" and can easily be used on one computer as well as the next.

 
 
       
       
0
 
vote

这是我目前的思维思维,这些笔记本电脑实验室全天都使用了多个学生。它归结为使用移动帐户而无需同步。

在每个课程中,我们告诉老师将特定计算机分配给特定的学生。 [如果同一学生在使用计算机的不同类别中,它们几乎肯定会有一个不同的计算机,就像在科学中,他们不需要访问社交研究分配。]登录屏幕显示用户的用户以前登录给定单元;和"其他" 选项,具有用户名和密码输入字段的选项,用于尚未以前登录的人。初始登录后,学生应在登录屏幕上查看其名称。如果他们没有,他们有错误的计算机(虽然他们可以登录,但没有任何文件将在那里。)

没有涉及同步。该帐户将类似于本地帐户,除了在打开目录中的条目中的任何用户可以登录机器并创建帐户。我们将轻松访问网络存储,因此学生可以备份他们的文件(我们将假设大多数学生,特别是小学生,不会利用此选项)。

此外,我认为将家庭文件夹(/用户)放在不同的分区上是值得的。这样,如果有逻辑硬盘驱动器错误或OS被否则损坏,则有可能的是用户的文件会好的,我们可以简单地重新映像系统分区。

相同的选择可以为一对一的笔记本电脑部署和桌面工作,我们可以为一致而做,但我不相信在这些情况下是最佳的。

附录:明年,我们计划在我们的旧计算机上运行OS X 10.4,10.5在较新的计算机上。我们已经关注,给定用户可能使用两者并使用旧软件(或更糟糕的软件无法读取的较新软件,使其IPhoto或iMovie数据库升级为它们,呈现与其数据无法使用的旧软件)。在不同类设置中使用此无同步,使用-a-diumer-computer,问题完全避免了。

其替代的问题是用户可能在不同的机器上具有它们的工作位和碎片。我希望如果我们向他们解释事物,他们会足够快地抓住,而不是这样做。

 

Here is my current line of thinking for laptop labs which are used by multiple students throughout the day. It comes down to using mobile accounts without syncing.

In each class, we tell the teacher to assign a particular computer to a particular student. [If the same student is in a different class that uses computers, they will almost certainly user a different computer, and that is okay, as in Science they won't need to access Social Studies assignments.] The login screen shows users who have logged into a given unit before; and an "other" option with a username and password entry field for those who have not logged into it before. After the initial login, the student should see their name on the login screen. If they do not, they have the wrong computer (and, although they can log in, none of their files will be there.)

There is no syncing involved. The account will act like a local account, except that any user with an entry in the Open Directory can log into the machine and create an account. We will provide easy access to network storage so students can back up their files (and we will assume that most students, especially elementary students, will not make use of this option).

Additionally, I think it would be worthwhile to put the home folders (/Users) on a different partition. That way, if there is a logical hard drive error or the OS is otherwise broken, there is a chance that the user's files will be okay and we can simply re-image the system partition.

This same option could work for one-to-one laptop deployments and desktops, and we could do it for consistancy, but I'm not convinced it is optimal in those cases.

Addendum: Next year, we are planning on running OS X 10.4 on our older computers, and 10.5 on the newer ones. We've been concerned that a given user might use both and create files with newer software that can't be read with the older software (or worse, have their iPhoto or iMovie database upgraded for them, rendering the older software unusable with their data). With this no-syncing, use-a-different-computer in different classes setup, the problem is neatly avoided.

The problem in its stead is that users may have bits and pieces of their work on different machines. I'm hoping that if we explain things to them, they'll catch on quickly enough and not do this.

 
 

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